An Insight Into the Emergence of Women-Owned Businesses As an Economic Force in India

1. Introduction
During the last two decades, Indian women have entered the field of entrepreneurship in greatly increasing numbers. With the emergence and growth of their businesses, they have contributed to the global economy and to their surrounding communities. The routes women have followed to take leadership roles in business are varied. Yet, most women business owners have overcome or worked to avoid obstacles and challenges in creating their businesses. The presence of women in the workplace driving small and entrepreneurial organizations creates a tremendous impact on employment and business environments.
Indian women business owners are changing the face of businesses of today, both literally and figuratively. The dynamic growth and expansion of women-owned businesses is one of the defining trends of the past decade, and all indications are that it will continue unabated. For more than a decade, the number of women-owned businesses have grown at one-and-a-half to two times the rate of all businesses. Even more important, the expansion in revenues and employment has far exceeded the growth in numbers.
The result of these trends is that women-owned businesses span the entire range of business life cycle and business success, whether the measuring stick is revenue, employment or longevity. This strengthens the view that all governmental programs and policies should target at strengthening women’s entrepreneurship in their native lands.
Although, many of the earlier obstacles to women’s business success have been removed, yet some still remain. This has initiated the scholars of entrepreneurship and small businesses to study the influences of and the impact on business ownership by women. The number of these research studies are growing steadily.
2. What Are The Characteristics Of Women Entrepreneurs In India?
Indian women of today have taken many strides towards business ownership. The broad classification of women business owners include women who establish, inherit, or acquire a business; women who start businesses with spouses or business partners but are either at the forefront or behind the scenes; and finally, women who start fast-growing or part-time or slow-growing firms. Although earlier researches on women entrepreneurs have suggested that significant differences existed between female and male entrepreneurs. However, more recent studies have shown that there are far more similarities than differences between women and men entrepreneurs in terms of psychological and demographic characteristics. The dominant predictors of success in case of women entrepreneurs are work experience and years of self-employment.
Generally, women view their businesses as a cooperative network of relationships rather than as a distinct profit-generating entity. This network extends beyond the business into the entrepreneur’s relationships with her family and the community. Certain cross-cultural studies on women entrepreneurs have reported that their management styles emphasizes open communication and participative decision-making, and their business goals reflect a concern for the community in which the business operates.
The majority of women business owners operate enterprises in the service sectors, whereas the majority of male business owners operate enterprises in non service sectors, particularly manufacturing. Women are not only achieving economic independence and wealth creation for themselves, but through job creation, they are also providing opportunities for others, particularly for other women.
A series of researches have shown that the workforce of women-owned businesses tend to be more gender balanced than the workforce of men-owned businesses, although women business owners are more likely to hire women. Put simply, an investment in women’s entrepreneurship is an investment in the economic independence and well-being of all women.
In comparison to their women counterparts who established their businesses two decades earlier, women who have started their businesses sometime during the past decade are more likely to have the following:
o a higher level of education, previous professional and managerial experience, as well as executive level experience
o a greater appetite for capital, both credit and equity
o a strong motivation for autonomy and achievement
o a dynamic personality
o a passion for what they do
o creativity to innovate and implement
o independence and self reliance
o high self confidence
o willingness & ability to take risks
o alertness to opportunities
o ability to marshal resources
o ability to respond to market & environment signals
Thus, from the above discussion, we can conclude the following traits of personality of women entrepreneurs:
Risk taker Proactive Opportunist Visionary Inventor Tolerance of ambiguity Commercialiser Desire for independence Trader High energy Innovator Ability to bounce back Flexible Results oriented Need for achievement All rounder Internal control Decisive Self confident Self Motivated Pragmatic Flair
3. Why Do Indian Women Undertake Entrepreneurship?
In spite of the growing number of female entrepreneurs, the share of female entrepreneurs is still significantly low when compared to their participation rate. However, there are several factors responsible for increasing the level of female entrepreneurship in India:
1. Nature of Entrepreneurship: Women enter into entrepreneurial activity because regular employment does not provide them with the flexibility, control or challenge offered by business ownership.
2. Motivation : Several evidences suggest that women do not lack the motivation to enter into business ownership. They are often highly motivated than their male counterparts to overcome the barriers to business start-up.
3. Empowerment : Indian women are becoming more empowered now-a-days. Legislation is being progressively drafted to offer them more opportunities at various levels.
4. Social Conditions : Population growth results in a strong positive relationship on entrepreneurial activity. Across genders, the increase in demand and competition for jobs pushes more people into necessary entrepreneurship. For women, in particular, the relatively high involvement in necessary entrepreneurship indicates that self-employment is used as a way to circumvent institutional and cultural constraints with respect to female employment, as well as a way to provide supplemental family income.
5. Economic Conditions : Auspicious economic conditions favour the participation of women in entrepreneurial activity. The smaller amount of financial capital requirement and higher proportion of available bank loans positively correlates the level of female entrepreneurship to economic conditions. In fact, in a country like India, the relationship between the size of unofficial economy and entrepreneurial activity is positive.
6. Literacy & Education: Increased levels of education has played a crucial role in initiating the process of entrepreneurship. It is not only the illiterate that are starting the businesses but those with education & skills are also exploiting profit opportunities.
4. What Are The Needs Of Women Entrepreneurs In India?
1) More and better access to finance/credit is mentioned very frequently. Give a woman 1000 rupees and she can start a business. Give her another 1000 rupees and she will be able to feed not only for her family, but for her employees as well.
2) Access to business support and information, including better integration of business services.
3) Training on business issues and related issues
4) Better access to local and foreign markets.
5) Day care centres & nurseries for children, and also for the elderly;
6) Positive image-building and change in mentality amongst women, whereby women see themselves as capable achievers and build up confidence.
7) Breaking through traditional patrons and structures that inhibit women’s advancement.
8) Role modelling of women in non-traditional business sectors to break through traditional views on men’s and women’s sectors.
9) More involvement and participation in legislation and decision-making processes.
10) Removing of any legislation which impedes women’s free engagement.
11) Awareness-raising at the governmental as well as private level to truly and really create entrepreneurial opportunities and not just programs that stay on paper.
5. Which Important Problems Are Faced By Women Entrepreneurs In India?
1. Women hardly interact with other women who are successful entrepreneurs. This results in a negative impact on their networking skills.
2. The areas, where one can see women acting as entrepreneurs, is in the very typical women’s sectors of 3Ps. This is also the area, where women are accepted in society to be experts in and thus have the capacity for entrepreneurial activities.
3. It is clear, that women have the responsibility of getting children and taking care of them. Very few societies accept fathers taking over the role of staying home and taking care of the children. Once these children are old enough to take care for themselves, they have to bear an additional responsibility of taking care of elder parents. If they want to become entrepreneurs, the society expects them to be able to do both: take care of family and home and do business.
4. Women are very critical when it comes to themselves – can I really do this, am I good enough, maybe I have to learn more, others can do it better. It is quite interesting that many successful women have been educated in only girls colleges and schools, which often deliver a safe environment to try out ones personal strengths, learn to overcome weaknesses and be proud of oneself.
5. Discrimination – it is hard to believe but women are still treated differently in our society. Women do get lower salaries compared to men doing the same job, women do not have access to men dominated networks who take their decisions about successors in the company during golf plays or sauna meetings….
6. Missing networks – through centuries business men have build up their networks but women still have to learn to catch up.
7. A lot of women tell stories about not being taken serious by bankers, when they wanted to get a loan for their business. Often enough, they have to bring their husbands or fathers to be able to be heard and receive financing. So, the domination of men in the banking world is a problem.

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Academic Writing – Too Many Articles That Are Partially Written – Tips For Finishing and Submitting

If you’re an academic (with a GREAT deal of pressure to get your writing done), you may have wondered the following question:

How do I get my writing done when when I already have too many irons in the fire (e.g., 7 articles underway, some of which just needing revising)

  1. Set up specific time for writing each day.  Since professors rarely have the identical schedule each day, then it may vary from day to day, but the idea is, schedule in your writing every day, no matter what else.  Schedule it as sacrosanct time.  You schedule all of your teaching time at the beginning of the semester and never think about scheduling a meeting during that time.  Consider your writing time as important and ‘not-to-be disturbed’ time as your classroom time.
  2. Set weekly goals for your writing. For example, since you have several articles underway, you can set as as a goal (for each of the first 7 weeks that you are starting your new writing ‘plan’) to finish one of the articles every week.  During each week’s time, you will still keep working on other articles, as well – getting even more conceptualized, edited, and so forth.  But, you will get one of your current ‘7’ finished each week.  This is highly motivating.  Since I know full well that the tenure clock ticks very quickly and especially for pre-tenure faculty,  time is of the essence.

The upside to having 7 articles in progress is that you have 7 articles in progress, i.e., articles that are already partly completed.  You are WAYYYY ahead of the game, really.  Each week, you really can finish one of these seven and then get it out there in the submission, acceptance, publication pipeline.

Academic acceptance is such a slow process and heavens knows, submitted articles don’t all get accepted the first time out (to say the least!!) …so you have to keep your articles in motion so that they are accepted and some published by the time you go up for promotion and tenure.
Of course, as a college or university faculty member, you have many opportunities for success and failure. If you would like additional tips, tools, and techniques that you can use to support your successes, then access one or both of the following free resource websites:

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Use Editing Services Improve Your Relationship With Your Academic Adviser

1. It is generally impossible to proofread or edit your own written work. You need a second set of eyes to find your typos, spelling errors, and grammatical mistakes. Notice a typo in the title of this article?
2. It can be very frustrating for an academic adviser to give feedback on the content of your research paper, thesis, or dissertation if he or she is spending a lot of time correcting the clarity, grammar, and spelling of your document. You should give your adviser well-written chapters and sections of your paper, thesis, or dissertation so he or she can focus on your work rather than spend time trying to figure out what you are trying to say.
3. A professional editor can make sure your paper is understandable and free of errors. You can ask the professional editor you hire to focus on what is important to you.
4. Your academic adviser will think more highly of your written work if it is, at a minimum, well-written. He or she does not want to spend hours deciphering the meaning of a paper and correcting minor mistakes. Using an editing service will make your work easier to read.
5. Don’t forget to thank your academic adviser for the time he or she spends helping you! You will need him or her to inform you of new jobs opening in your field, write recommendation letters, and work with you to submit journal articles from your thesis or dissertation. This makes your relationship with your academic adviser crucial for your career. People with poor relationships with their academic adviser are less likely to receive a good recommendation and to obtain their desired academic job.

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Why Buying Branded Clothes Makes Good Sense

People buying clothes are always torn between whether they should buy the branded clothing or clothes that are unbranded. Of course, the main and most obvious difference between branded and unbranded is the cost. However, even though branded cost a lot more, here are three reasons why one should opt for them.
Branded Attire can be exchanged:
If you are buying your branded clothes from the right shop, you can actually exchange them provided you adhere to the rules and regulations. Though you might not always get your money back, but you may get coupons to buy for the same amount from the said shop, which is good enough.  Also, branded clothes have better customer service and exchange policies, which will ensure that you do not end up stiffed because of your buy.
Branded Attire Fit Better:
One cannot deny the fact that branded clothes look and fit better. In fact, many people buy clothes from a particular brand all the time simply because they are more comfortable with the fit that the clothes provide them.  Also, you will find that branded clothes have more fits available. For example, a branded clothes manufacturer may have the same design available in more sizes than all the unbranded clothes put together.
Branded Attire is Safer to Wear:
Clothes are made of various materials and resources. If you wear unbranded clothes, you may end up getting hurt by the accessories that are used in making them, for example a malfunctioning button or a bad zipper.  Therefore, just by paying a little more, you can be sure that you get the best quality, look and feel, form fitting and safe and hygienic attire.
Because of these three reasons, branded attire becomes a better buy as compared to unbranded clothes, even if one pays a bit more for this type of clothing.

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SPM English 1119 Essay Writing

The SPM English 1119 Exam comprises two papers: Paper I and Paper 2.
Paper 1, which is strictly on essay writing, requires candidates to write two essays: Directed Writing and Continuous Writing. Paper 2 tests students in the following areas: reading and comprehension, information transfer skills, vocabulary, summary writing skills, and literature. Although essay writing is reserved for Paper 1, students are required to write a summary and answer questions on poetry, novels and plays which test their ability to write.
It is evident that writing is prominently featured in the SPM English exam. This can be deduced from the marks allocated for the following:
Paper 1 – Directed Writing (35), Continuous Writing (50)
Paper 2 – Summary (15), Literature (25)
The total marks for the above is 125 marks out of the total of 160 marks.
What is the bottom line?
Students who want to do well in the SPM English exam should pay more attention to the above areas that require them to write. However, writing is a skill that most students find onerous or difficult. Writing is a skill that must be inculcated from young. Like reading, once you’ve got yourself into the habit of writing, you are hooked onto it for life.
Writing is a process that has to start from the child’s primary school years. But is this happening? It is common for teachers to lament that students are unable to write despite having done quite well in the PMR English exam for 15-year-olds. I have personally facilitated a group of undergraduates in a public university and I was horrified by the deplorable standard of English displayed in their assignments.
So, where did we go wrong?
I have been a teacher, trainer and writer. As an English teacher I have taught General English, ‘O’ Level English, English for Business and Science, TOEFL and IELTS. I have written computer-based English and Phonics lessons for schools and kindergartens. I have also written a computer-based training course for insurance sales agents. Since last year, I have published two e-learning titles: My PMR English Success Formula and SPM English 1119 Self-Tuition Course. My company, Students’ English Resource, aims to produce more e-learning materials for the Malaysian market.

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Selected Observations in Preparing Research Papers Are Problematic

For those who specialize in scientific research projects, they are always, and constantly looking for more research money. If they fail to impress those that might be giving them the money in grants, then they have to stop operations and stop their research. Often, the people that are giving the grants are politically motivated and a desire specific outcomes of the research. Most researchers get upset with these things because they wish to do ethical research, and yet, at some point they need to do what is most prudent to keep their research facility going.
When dealing with specific research, or researching a specific set of circumstances, often a researcher might have an observation that they were not expecting, and if that particular observation is not in line with their research or their desired outcome to please their clients, they will disregard it. Their basic understanding is that if it is outside the scope of the experiment, it is irrelevant to the paper that they will be writing.
And yet, an ethical observer might say that such observations should be known to all, and they are important to other researchers in the future, not to mention that such observations if ignored cover up the truth. Of course, this is just one type of ethical question that comes into play while doing scientific research for specific clients that have a specific agenda.
It is often also noted that research is stopped halfway through when certain observations are found, and the research is then re-focused in a different direction, one which might yield a slightly different observation or prove inconclusive, which is often okay with the client.
However, these things are indeed problematic and if we cannot get ethical researchers, or if they are simply after the money then their research is of no value to the human race and they are of no value to science in my personal and professional opinion after 20 years of observation of these types of things. Please consider all this.

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How to Structure an Essay – Tips to Make Essay Writing Feel Less Overwhelming!

    • Always begin an essay with an introduction, but be careful not to write too much too soon, an introduction is usually between five and six good, relevant sentences. Though of course write more if you feel more is needed!


    • Introduce the topic of your essay (which could be done by simply rephrasing the title/essay question) and briefly outline the points you wish to raise.


  • Be careful not to include any concluding remarks, leave comments unbiased and open-ended.
Main Body
    • Split the main body of your essay into clear paragraphs. One relevant point to answering your essay question per paragraph.


    • Each paragraph should essentially have a couple of sentences explaining your point, and then some factual knowledge included, to back up what you have written so far and to prove that you have done some research and know what you are writing about!


    • Try to make a link back to the essay title/question. This shows the marker that you are giving a good answer and also keeps the question clear in your own mind. (it is so easy miss out on marks by writing down everything you know on the subject when it isn’t actually relevant to answering the question.)


    • As you become more confident in essay writing, you can get more marks by making brief links between points. Briefly mention in one sentence how one point you are considering in your essay influences/affects another point.


  • You should aim to have three or four paragraphs for the main body of your essay.
    • A very important aspect to an essay is a conclusion.


    • If you are running out of time when writing an essay in say an exam, it would be better to cut out some of the maybe less relevant points you wish to make, and make sure you get a good conclusion written.


    • Try to keep your conclusion as concise as possible. Mention each of the points raised in the main body of the essay and highlight the similarities and contrasts between them.


    • Make your own judgment on which point you believe is the most important/relevant to the question and which you believe is the least important/relevant and then explain why!


    • By doing this you have shown that you have researched different points to the question, shown factual knowledge and then come to your own conclusion.


  • Just be careful not to write anything new that you haven’t mentioned in your essay in the conclusion!

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